Welcome to our blog where Kings' advisors will post regularly with topical views and advice. Subjects covered will be wide-ranging and include game cover, conservation crops, green cover, forage crops, stewardship, compliance and changling legislation.

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25th September 2017

Accepting EFA changes... and embracing them! 

The latest Ecological Focus Area (EFA) changes announced for 2018 have caused much speculation among my colleagues and growers too.  In particular, people have been very animated about the loss of crop protection products within EFAs, with some seeing it as reducing the value of EFA options on farm. Meanwhile, DEFRA termed this as a complete BAN which has only added fuel to this fire.

Whilst the changes may be significant in some areas it is worth bringing a few things into perspective and remembering that although change is ahead, there are still good opportunities to be had with EFA.  Let’s not ‘throw the baby out with the bathwater’!

Where a grower has more than 15ha of arable land, then the 5% area allocated to EFA features is required – end of, no question. The challenge is to continue making the most of this 5% of land, even without PPPs.

Growing nitrogen fixing crops, previously a simple means of delivering EFA for many land managers, becomes more challenging without glyphosate to destroy them. Consequently, many are likely to withdraw this crop from their EFA requirements if that happens.   This in turn sends growers searching for the next ‘broad hectare’ option to fill that gap and there are a few options worth considering.

Catch and cover crops

For many, catch and cover crops will be the obvious choice. This could be a very positive step for the farm business, bringing as it does a range of benefits for soils. It may even be the factor that gets people who have so far been ‘sat on the green cover fence’ involved.

All this is great but what are the options for destroying green cover crops should PPPs not be allowed within EFA option schedules in the future?  Good question, and there are a number of routes:

  • Fully invert/cultivate the crop. Although this won’t fit with a no/min-til system. Deep-rooted crops such as tillage radish will be best avoided here.
  • Choose frost sensitive species within the approved list (vetch, mustard, phacelia) so that when spring arrives there is little crop left to destroy. However, EFA rules dictate the need for a cereal to be included too, such as oats or rye.
  • Graze crops down to bare ground.
  • Consider using a crimper to bruise/damage the crop prior to drilling a following crop. This is technique widely used in Europe and by many organic growers in the UK. Kings is working within a research group investigating the methods and best practice within this emerging area of crop destruction.

Longer term fallow optionsEFA changes v2

These can include planting nectar flower or flower rich mixtures to benefit pollinators. This can be done on a field scale, within field areas or as a field margin; whatever works best for your purposes. This is a great way of utilising less productive land to deliver pollinator habitat. A well established nectar flower mix can deliver for 3-5 years whilst a flower rich grass mix could be left for many years with minimal management once established making it very cost effective with high delivery for farm wildlife.

Benefitting a shoot

If you have sporting interests and want to benefit the shoot, as well as offering support to farmland birds, you can establish wild bird seed mixtures in autumn or spring.

With the withdrawal of PPPs the autumn establishment window is becoming more attractive, as this reduces the challenge of spring weeds such as redshank and fat hen. 

Spring planting without PPPs will require more care but great results can still be achieved. My advice would be to ensure seedbeds are well prepared using a stale seedbed technique with planting delayed until late May through to mid July. Getting a crop off to a flying start is critical so that it can get away from weed and pest challenges.

Longer term cover can be used to aid sporting interests. Plant a mix containing reed canary grass and perennial chicory. Poacher Leave-it contains perennial, biennial and annual species and is a popular choice where long term cover is required. Its numerous benefits include providing wild game with sanctuary from overhead predation; delivering nesting and brood rearing habitat; offering winter holding/driving cover and providing a windbreak to conventional game cover/wild bird seed mix areas.

So rather than dwelling on what has been and gone within EFA, take the opportunity to look at what’s still on offer and consider how you can adapt to develop a legislative requirement into an asset for the farm business and the wider farmed environment.    

Richard Barnes






Richard Barnes, Kings sales manager

For specific advice for your business related to this blog get in touch with Kings.

12th September 2017

Hedgerows and woodland – Get ahead, get a planGeorge new hedge late summer side v2

The annual period during which landowners are prevented from cutting hedges under cross-compliance recently came to an end. With this important annual restriction in place to protect wildlife from 1st March until 31st August, it’s tempting to set about hedge cutting in earnest come September.  

However, there are very good reasons to be selective with your hedge trimmers until January, or even February, to improve the biodiversity of your land.

Why are hedgerows so important?

Hedgerows serve a valuable purpose during the winter offering shelter and food for wildlife. Trim back too vigorously in autumn and you, and wildlife on your land, may pay later.

Delaying or staggering cutting will provide farmland birds with a source of food in the form of berries during the ‘hungry gap’. This is the hardest time for birds during harsh British winters, but the rewards for preserving hedgerows go far beyond that.

Hedgerows and woodland edges offer massive benefits to a whole host of wildlife. They are a key element to farmland ecology providing habitats for various species and a number of additional benefits. For example, tussocky grass underneath a well-established hedgerow will give a home to ground-nesting birds and small mammals. These mammals will provide feed for birds of prey such as barn owls and kestrels. Meanwhile, the mammals’ disused burrows will in turn provide overwintering habitat for vital pollinators such as the queen bee and predatory beetles. 

It’s all part of a fantastic farmland ecosystem that starts with a thriving hedgerow!

Come spring, hedgerows are the earliest source of pollen available to pollinators. A sympathetic autumn/winter hedge cutting plan will ensure fruit and pollen production is optimised. Some species, such as hawthorn, flower only on the second or even third year after cutting. Rotating hedgerow cutting in such situations, so that everywhere isn’t cut back at once, will ensure a constant food source.

Hedgerow cuttingBerry hedge 2

Before taking a blanket approach, assess the current performance and situation of each section of hedgerow.  In this way you’ll be able to create a management plan appropriate to each section. Your aim should be to cut back where essential and delay wherever possible to preserve hedgerows as much as you can.

Woodland planning

Management of woodland is another area that shouldn’t be overlooked.  Thinning, coppicing and clear felling will all help ensure there isn’t a monoculture of tall trees without an understorey for woodland birds and other wildlife. Think about your ride management. Cutting swathes slightly deeper will create warm pockets in the sun and away from the wind.  These will produce mini habitats for butterflies and pollinating insects in the summer months.

Planting hedgerows and woodland

Given the importance of hedgerows and woodland to the whole farm ecosystem the planting of new hedgerows and gap filling is vital. There are various grants available to support this through the Woodland Trust and the Forestry Commission (FC) - although the window for FC application this year’s now closed.

Grants can be used on an estate to create corridors between existing woodlands or, on sporting estates, to link woodland with cover strips.

So before you fire up the hedge trimmer this autumn, take a closer look and see where you might be able to delay cutting until later in the winter.

Meehal Grint






Meehal Grint, Kings technical advisor

For specific advice for your business related to this blog get in touch with Kings.


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